| ||42년 동안 리비아를 철권 통치했던 무아마르 카다피 전 국가원수가 지난달 20일 자신의 고향에서 사망했다. 그로 인해 리비아 내전은 종식되었지만, 리비아가 자유와 민주주의 국가로서 발돋움 하기 위해서는 아직 많은 과제가 남아 있다. 카다피의 일생과 죽음에 대한 다음 지문을 통해 리비아의 정국에 대해서 알아보자. |
On October 20, the 2011 Libyan Civil War effectively ended with the death of Moammar Gadhafi. The dictator was traveling with loyalist troops near his hometown of Sirte when his convoy was targeted by U.S. and French air strikes. Wounded, he attempted to hide but was discovered by opposition soldiers, who took him prisoner and executed him shortly afterward. Five days later they buried him in an unmarked grave in the desert. Gadhafi had ruled Libya for forty-two years, during which he repressed and impoverished his people while demanding that they venerate him as a visionary and “Brother Leader.”
Born in a Bedouin tent in 1942, Gadhafi became a self-styled “revolutionary” at the age of 19. As a cadet at Libya’s military academy, he began plotting with a group of classmates to overthrow the country’s monarch. ■ But it was as a 27-year-old army officer that he deposed King Idris al-Senoussi in a nonviolent coup and declared the Libyan Arab Republic. ■ His political philosophy―an idiosyncratic blend of socialism, Arab nationalism, and Islamic law―was set forth in his 1975 Green Book, an homage to Mao Zedong’s Little Red Book. ■ This volume declared Gadhafi’s contempt for the political parties and representative bodies that characterize Western-style liberal democracies, and instead called for a “direct democracy” in which citizens would govern themselves through committees and congresses. ■
Yet Libya under Gadhafi bore little resemblance to the free and democratic nation envisioned in the Green Book―a volume whose simplistic slogans and ill-formed ideas were privately laughed at by his countrymen, even as it became required reading for all citizens. Despite lip service to freedom of speech, Libyans were pressured to inform on each other, and “revolutionary committees” terrorized dissidents with imprisonment, torture, and summary executions. In the 1980s Gadhafi founded the Arab Gathering, a militant Arab supremacist organization that played an important role in his disastrous invasions of neighboring Chad and Egypt. (Janjaweed, the militia that recently perpetrated what many regard as genocide in Darfur, is an offshoot of the Arab Gathering.) Throughout his rule Gadhafi was a prominent sponsor of international terrorism and a friend to many of the world’s most murderous regimes, including those of Idi Amin in Uganda and Slobodan Milosevic in Serbia. His intelligence service was responsible for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, which killed 270 people and reinforced Libya’s status as a global pariah. Tough international sanctions were imposed on Libya in the 1990s over the nation’s support for terrorism and its efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction.
Gadhafi’s bloody tenure was made even more grotesque by his grandiose and even clownish behavior, which increased over the decades. During trips to foreign capitals, he insisted on staying in a Bedouin tent. He traveled with what he termed his Amazonian Guard, a cadre of female bodyguards that were required to take vows of celibacy. Often bizarre in appearance due to cosmetic surgery, dyed hair, and flamboyant clothing, Gadhafi seemed to believe his own oft-repeated lies that his people adored him and that he had placed Libya at “the pinnacle of the world.” However deluded, he was a cunning and ruthless leader who managed to subjugate a nation for over forty years.
1. Look at the four squares (■) that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
It also described freedom of expression as “the right of every natural person.”
Where would the sentence best fit?
TIPS: It이 무엇을 지칭하는가를 먼저 파악해야 하는데, 문맥상 Green Book을 가르키는 것을 알 수 있다. 또한 “also”가 들어가있으므로, Green Book에 대한 설명이나 온후에 들어가는 것이 적절하므로 네 번째 네모가 정답이다.
2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
(A) The Green Book, which Libyans often ridiculed but were forced to read, did not reflect reality.
(B) Due to its simplistic ideas, Libyans did not consider the Green Book a useful guide for building a democracy.
(C) The Green Book described a free and democratic country, and all Libyans were required to read it.
(D) Libyans laughed at the Green Book because it explained ideas in a simplistic way.
TIPS: 하이라이트된 문장의 핵심은 1) Green Book이 Gaddafi의 원칙을 정확히 나타내지 못했다는 것과 2) 많은 사람들이 비웃었고, 3) 리비아인들은 읽도록 요구 받았다는 점이다. 모든 내용을 포함하고 있는 (A)가 정답이다.
3. In paragraph 3, all of the following are mentioned as misdeeds of Gaddafi’s EXCEPT
(A) supporting criminal governments
(B) waging war on other countries
(C) enriching himself illegally
(D) killing people without trial
TIPS: (A)는 가장 살인적인 정권들의 친구였다는 것을 내용으로 알 수 있고, (B)는 이웃 Chad와 이집트를 공격했다는 내용으로 알 수 있으며, (D)는 즉각 처형을 했다는 내용으로서 답이 될 수 있다. 따라서 (C)가 정답이다.
정답1. Fourth Square, 2. A, 3.C
-troop: n. 병력, 군대 / soldiers in an organized group
-venerate: v. 공경(숭배)하다 / to honor or respect someone or something because they are old, holy, or connected with the past
-cadet: n. 육해공군 사관 생도 / someone who is training to be an officer in the army
-homage: n. 경의, 존경의 표시 / something you do to show respect for someone or something you think is important
-dissident: n. 반체제 인사 / someone who publicly criticize the government in a country where this is punished
-torture: v. 고문하다 / to deliberately hurt someone in order to force them to give you information, to punish them, or to be cruel
-genocide: n. 집단학살 / the deliberate murder of a whole group or race of people
-offshoot: n. 분지 / a new stem or branch on a plant
-grotesque: adj. 기괴한 / unpleasant, shocking, and offensive’
-tenure: n. 재임 기간 / the period of time when someone has an important job